Master’s degree in civil engineering, 1972. Ph.D., Laboratory of heating and Air Conditioning, Technical University of Denmark, 1975. In the period 1972-1990 Research scientist at the Laboratory of Heating and Air Conditioning. Part time affiliated as product manager at Brüel & Kjaer 1978-1992. Senior Research Scientist, College of Architecture, Virginia Tech. in the period 1992-1993. Since 1993 until January 2004 Head of Research & Development at UPONOR-VELTA GmbH KG & Co., Norderstedt, Germany. Since January 2004 full professor in Indoor Environment & Energy at the Technical University of Denmark and director of the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Awarded the Ralph Nevins Award (1982), Distinguish Service Award (1997), Fellow Award (2001) and Exceptional Service Award (2006) from ASHRAE. Awarded the Medal of Honour from the German Engineering Society (VDI-TGA, 2005) and International Honorary Member of SHASE. The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan. Vice president of ASHRAE and Honorary member of AICARR (Italian Society for HVAC).
Is active in several ASHRAE-CEN-ISO-DIN standard committees regarding indoor environment and energy performance of buildings and HVAC systems. Has published more than 350 papers including more than 60 in peer reviewed journals.
The paper presents an update on today’s requirement for a healthy and comfortable environment. The paper will mainly be dealing with the indoor thermal environment and air quality. Several standards and guidelines are specifying requirements related to comfort and to health; but the productivity of people is not taken into account. Recent studies showing that comfortable room temperatures, increased ventilation above normal recommendation, reduction of indoor pollution sources and more effective ventilation increases the performance of people. The results indicate increase of productivity of 5-10 %. Also based on the laboratory studies a 10 % increase in dissatisfaction decreases the productivity with around 1%.
The paper shows that for well-designed buildings these types of system are capable of providing a comfortable indoor climate both in summer and in winter in different climatic zones. Various control concepts and corresponding energy performance are presented. To remove latent heat, these systems may be combined with an air system. This air system can, however, be scaled down with the benefit of improved comfort (noise, draught) compared to full air-conditioning. An added benefit can be reduced building height due to the elimination of suspended ceilings. Finally, surface heating and cooling systems use water at a temperature close to room temperature. This increases the possibility of using renewable energy sources and increasing the efficiency of boilers, heat pumps and refrigeration machines.
Fanger (1982), Fanger and Langkilde (1975), and Nevins et al. (1966) used equal numbers of male and female subjects, so comfort conditions for the two sexes can be compared. The experiments show that men and women prefer almost the same thermal environments. Women’s skin temperature and evaporative loss are slightly lower than those for men, and this balances the somewhat lower metabolism of women. The reason that women often prefer higher ambient temperatures than men may be partly explained by the lighter clothing normally worn by women.
First, the primary reason is that we are overcooling buildings in summer, using enormous amounts of energy, and creating uncomfortably cold conditions for everyone. A study at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory found that average temperatures in office buildings in the U.S. are colder in the summer than in the winter (exactly the opposite of what they should be), and are actually lower than the minimums recommended by the standards. Existing international standards like ISO EN7730, EN15251 and ASHRAE 55 are based on the same basic studies described above. These standards do not specify different room temperatures for women and men when doing the same work and dressed in similar clothing. Contrary to what has been suggested, these standards are not devised exclusively for men. They are based on extensive laboratory studies of both men and women wearing the same clothing, engaged in the same activity, and exposed to a wide variety of thermal conditions (air temperature, surface temperature, humidity and air movement). Metabolic heat production was simply a proxy for the kind of activity. And while it is one of many variables used in an empirical formula, it is not an input to a heat balance equation, as one might find in a thermo-physiological model (which exists, but was not the basis for the standards). The primary reason is that we are overcooling buildings in summer, using enormous amounts of energy, and creating uncomfortably cold conditions for everyone.